Welsh societies from all around the world, a taste of Wales where ever you go, sharing and carrying on our culture and traditions through their own Welsh societies or groups.
If you are a member or run any Welsh societies and are not listed on our web page please Contact us, all we kindly ask is that you link back to us via a reciprocal link with your web site, this, however, is not compulsory.
The Norwich Welsh Society was formed in 1965 by a group of Welsh friends, nostalgic for their homeland, decided to go out for a meal on the first day of March to celebrate St. David’s Day. The idea of forming a Norwich Welsh Society came from this gathering. (These friends may not have known that there had been, at least, two previous attempts to form such a society. The first, in the 1920’s was very short lived but the second had been more successful but had agreed to close down soon after the start of WWII). The dinner plans continued and a second celebration was held in 1966 but then, when plans for the formation of the Society were almost complete, the driving force behind the idea (and due to be the first President), Mr. Trevor Jones, was required to leave Norwich. However, this was not allowed to prevent the birth and the first President, Mr Horace Rowley, was duly elected at the inaugural meeting of the Norwich Welsh Society in 1967.
The Welsh Norwegian Society celebrates the special relationship that exists between the two countries. The Society is open to anybody with an interest in all things Norway – our members include Norwegians living in Wales and beyond, people with family links to Norway, and others who have a particular interest in Norway and enjoy some of the Scandinavian traditions that are celebrated in Wales. Membership covers all ages and includes those that speak Norwegian, those that don’t and those that would like to. A friendly, informal welcome is extended to anyone who wishes to join us.
The St. David’s Society of Hong Kong is a membership society for Welsh people in Hong Kong, or for anyone in Hong Kong who has an association with, or affinity for, Wales. We provide a point of social contact for Welsh men and women in Hong Kong and indeed anyone who has an affiliation with Wales, be it through school, university, work or simply a love of the country. Our social gatherings vary from year to year but are always focused on (relatively) light-hearted entertainment and the enjoyment of each other’s company. We also make annual donations to charities in Hong Kong and Wales, from proceeds raised at events held throughout the year.
The Washington DC Welsh Society, for 128 years the Society has fostered the culture and traditions of Wales, commemorated the Welsh contribution in founding the American republic, and sought to perpetuate love of Welsh music, literature, history and art. In the past, we helped immigrants from Wales and their children to adapt and make the most of life in America. Now, we hold regular social events, climaxing in the Annual Banquet to honour and celebrate St. David, Patron of Wales, which takes place close to his feast-day on March 1. We are a focal point for Wales in the nation’s capital, and cultivate links with friends and like-minded groups on both sides of the Atlantic.
The Welsh Society of Western New England is dedicated to celebrating and learning about all things Welsh. We meet at least quarterly and share a meal and an interesting subject or presentation relating to Wales. Many of our members have Welsh heritage or were born in Wales and others are drawn to gatherings through their interest in the country, language and culture. Our meetings and activities occur at various locations around Western New England and we encourage you to be a part of our growing group!
NINNAU & Y Drych is a North American Welsh Newspaper. It is the result of the 2003 merger of NINNAU, then the North American Welsh Newspaper, and Y Drych, the oldest Welsh newspaper in the Americas. Now united as one newspaper, NINNAU & Y Drych provides complete coverage of the North American Welsh community and are dedicated to preserving and enhancing the vitality of the North American Welsh community and Serving as a link between the North American Welsh people and Wales.
The Chicago Taffia Welsh Society was born in 1999 as the result of a discussion between a couple of ex-pats wondering aloud, “why do the Irish and the Scots have some kind of setup in the States that they can turn to for help and settling into a new country and the Welsh don’t?” It dawned on us that maybe we should stop complaining and do something about it to help future Welsh ex-pats navigating the roads of Immigration and settling into the city of Chicago. The Tafia has now been going for over a decade, and has come a long way from its early roots. Our website offers helpful links for Welsh Immigration and Travel, local British Import shops, photos of recent events, and other information about other local Welsh & Celtic Societies. Our group’s activities are wide-ranging with social get-togethers for pub nights, gatherings to watch Welsh sporting events, musicians & films, celebrating St. David’s Day, and promoting Wales at Chicago area Celtic Festivals to name but a few.
St David’s Welsh Society of Singapore are a community of Welsh expats, their families, their friends and everybody else with a link to living in Singapore with a smile. We get together regularly socially and for Welsh related social events that include a “Race Night” trip to Singapore’s Kranji racecourse, Family get together’s, ‘Ladies nights’, ‘Coffee mornings’, ‘Celtic Christmas Drinks’ enjoying family Sunday lunches at the Colbar and meeting up for live sporting events throughout the year including the Six Nations Rugby and Rugby World cup. We welcome a variety of members from different social and cultural backgrounds who still enjoy a link to our unique Welsh heritage. You don’t have to be Welsh to join our society just a keen interest in meeting up, getting to know new people and having lots of fun throughout the year.
Welsh Society of Brussels – Cymdeithas Gymreig Brwsel is a social organisation for Welsh people and friends of Wales living in Belgium. We meet regularly on the first Tuesday of the month in the Wild Geese pub near Maelbeek metro in Brussels. We are a social organisation for Welsh people, and those of Welsh origin, in Belgium, our aim is to bring together Welsh people living in Belgium for social activities and events run throughout the year.
Sydney Welsh Society – Cymdeithas Cymry Sydney was formed to enable like-minded Welsh people or those of Welsh ancestry to maintain their links to Wales and its culture. We aim to promote the best interests of the Welsh community in Sydney while, at the same time, advancing Welsh arts, culture and language. Most of our members are permanent residents. Many have become Australian citizens. Does this entail any lessening of our passion for the Land of Our Fathers? Certainly not! You can learn to love this sunburnt country, appreciate the many superb features of life Down Under and still treasure your memories of Wales and its unique history, society, culture and language.
Calgary Welsh Society has been in existence since 1906 and is one of the oldest such Welsh societies in Alberta. One of the primary aims of the society is to provide a focal and meeting point for those of Welsh origin or descent. Individuals with an interest in Wales and things Welsh are equally welcome. As a society, we encourage individuals to take pride in our Welsh heritage and culture and to perpetuate the traditions and customs that are unique to Wales. To do this, the society organises and celebrates a number of social and cultural events throughout the year.
The Welsh Society of Vancouver has been part of Vancouver’s cultural landscape for over a century, bringing Welsh people and Canadians with an interest in Welsh culture together in a friendly, social atmosphere. We are guardians of the history of Welsh migration to Vancouver and other parts of British Columbia. Hospitality is extended to visitors from every corner of the world, and our doors are always open to those who share our love of traditional Celtic music and poetry. We offer a variety of regular and special events throughout the year, listed under the “events” tab above. Most are open to non-members. If there is an area of Welsh culture not represented here, we encourage you to get involved and volunteer with the Society. We are always looking for new ways to share our culture with the broader Vancouver community.
The Welsh Social Club of Dubai was set up in 1997 by a few expatriate Welsh men and women in the emirate of Dubai. The society aims to foster a social community for Welsh people living and working in Dubai or those simply visiting. We have close links with the British consul and Welsh companies in Dubai and the wider Gulf region. Each year we hold a number of social events ranging from our Welsh National Day Ball to our regular quiz and social nights. Each year we hold a number of social events ranging from the grand St David’s Day Ball for 450+ guests to quiz and comedy nights.
Victoria Welsh Society started in 1979 as an informal meeting of friends with shared interests about Wales and Welsh culture was held at the home of David and Margaret Lintern – this marked the regeneration of the Welsh Society in Victoria, British Columbia. The original group was small but vibrant and energetic. It provided a focal point for the promotion of friendships and the interaction of those who wished to foster an awareness and appreciation of all that is Welsh. Over time, the Victoria Welsh Society has grown into an active, non-profit association that encourages a variety of activities among a broad range of people. The Society does not have an established and permanent meeting place, rather, it gathers in various locales dependent on the event and the calendar. Welsh costumes, flags, food, and hwyl can be produced to attest to a Welsh presence on various special occasions in and around Victoria throughout the year.
The Welsh Cultural Society of Nova Scotia was formed by a group of Welsh expatriates who first came together each year to celebrate St. David’s Day (March 1st). The Society was incorporated as a non-profit organisation in 1986; the aim of the Society is “to promote Welsh culture in Nova Scotia”. Social and cultural gatherings are held in member’s homes or other venues and occasionally, during the summer or fall in out of town locales. We invite people of Welsh heritage or interest to become members of our Society.
The Welsh Society of Western Australia has been going strongly in Perth for over fifty years. Meetings are held in the Hall of the Noranda Uniting Church, 79 Camboon Road, Noranda, on the third Wednesday of each month at 7.30pm. Some form of entertainment is arranged each month, whether it be a quiz night, a Welsh supper, a guest speaker, or of course, our very entertaining annual “Noson Lawen”. We also have regular daytime outings. Once a year, we celebrate the most important event on the Welsh calendar, St David’s Day, with a sumptuous formal dinner. We also have a close affiliation with the Free Welsh Church of Western Australia. To be a member it is not essential that you speak Welsh, or were even born in Wales. We do, however, hope you share in the love of Wales and all things Welsh.
The Wales-Argentina Society was founded in 1939 by a number of people with connections in the Welsh settlement in Chubut to be a link between the two countries. It now has over 300 members. The Welsh Colony in Patagonia, was established in 1865, when over 150 people from various parts of Wales sailed on the Mimosa to settle in the Chubut Valley, in Southern Argentina. Over the following fifty years, hundreds of Welsh people emigrated there, and established a number of towns and villages.
The Welsh-American Society of Northern California (WASNC) celebrates Wales, its history and culture, and the Welsh people who immigrated to America. Welsh immigrants helped found Pennsylvania; brought the Industrial Revolution technologies of mining and steel making from Wales; formed the Mormon Tabernacle Choir; joined the California Gold Rush, and contributed to the building of the United States. Wales has a rich and vibrant history going back to the pre-Roman Celts, and King Arthur and Merlin.
The Colorado Welsh Society is an organization where people from Wales, people of Welsh ancestry, or people with an interest in Wales and Welsh Culture can come together with the common interest and goal of preserving the Welsh heritage and culture through language, music, dance and song on Colorado’s Front Range. The Society organises Welsh themed events throughout the year, offers classes in the Welsh Language, supports what may be the largest Welsh Folk Dance performance group in North America and has its own Welsh themed choir.
The Welsh League of Arizona endeavours to promote Welsh language and culture by providing or coordinating performing arts and literary events, offering language classes, and using the language and participating in Celtic festivals and other community events. Enhance relations between the US and Wales by being a point of contact for visitors, businesses and expatriates. We warmly welcome travellers and offer assistance and networking as needed. Enhance relations with the other Celtic nations by supporting other Celtic groups. We ask that they support us in turn.
Cymrodorion Boston Welsh a have existed in Boston for over a hundred years, and have shared in generations of Welsh-American cultural developments. The society exists to help enable and promote Welsh social and cultural events in the Greater Boston area. Members organise various events through the year, satisfying a wide range of interest from folk music to rock, from poetry to rugby. Our main social event of the year is the St David’s Day Celebration which in recent years has been an evening of live entertainment and refreshments spent in the gracious company of the Friends of Harvard Celtic Studies.
St David’s Society of Utica, New York The purpose of our Society is to promote activities which are unique to the Welsh culture, and to support efforts to preserve contributions made by Welsh-Americans in the development of this area. Membership is open to persons of Welsh heritage and also those interested in Welsh culture.
The Welsh Society of Central Ohio was established 1948 as The Columbus Welsh Society and fosters the appreciation and preservation of Welsh heritage and traditions and promotes the literature, poetry, music, and the arts of Wales for the benefit and education of members of the general public. In 1985, members of WSCO started a folk dancing troupe, and January, 2006, saw the re-formation of the Columbus Welsh Singing Society.
The Welsh Society of Fredericksburg founded in 1991, brings together persons who are interested in preserving and perpetuating the heritage and culture of Wales. We impart this knowledge to the general public as an ongoing educational endeavour and foster, encourage and organize other activities relating to Wales. The Welsh Society of Fredericksburg meets the third Sunday of every month except July. Our meetings are held in Faulkner Hall at St. George’s Episcopal Church located at 905 Princess Anne Street in Historic Old Town Fredericksburg. “Since its founding, the Society has held a Welsh Festival in September in honour of our fifth president James Monroe’s mother, Elizabeth Jones.”
The Puget Sound Welsh Association is dedicated to preserving the history and promoting the heritage of the Welsh in the Puget Sound region and surrounding enviroment. Mirroring the contributions on a national level, the Welsh have a long history in the region and have been influential contributors in all aspects of local industry, politics and education. Started as an umbrella group coordinating the activities of the various Welsh clubs in the Puget Sound area and moving into the role of organising and coordinating social events for members, and promoting cultural and intellectual events highlighting Welsh heritage and contributions to the community. Interacting and coordinating activities with the Welsh societies in adjacent localities including Vancouver and Victoria, BC and Portland and Corvallis.
The St David’s Society of The State of New York was founded in 1801. Our aim to develop and support the Welsh culture and communities in the US. We cultivate knowledge and appreciation of Welsh history and the Welsh language and literature, supporting a Welsh language study program and summer schools. We also provide aid to Welsh persons and their descendants who, for whatever reason, find themselves in distress. We annually award the St David’s Society Scholarship to students that attend Welsh colleges and to students of Welsh descent. Each year the St. David’s Society of New York presents a bronze medal “to persons of Welsh blood or descent for distinguished services in the preservation and advancement of Welsh genius in every field of endeavour.
The Great Plains Welsh Heritage Project is based in Wymore, Nebraska. Come visit our museum, 307 Seventh St. in Wymore, Nebraska, USA, where we maintain many Welsh heritage artifacts. Our Welsh garden is a relaxing and tranquil setting for enjoying the outdoors. We host several events throughout the year to preserve and promote Welsh American heritage of Nebraska and the Great Plains. As a service to Welsh Americans, we provide archival space for historical documents related to Welsh American heritage. To assist with your genealogical research, we provide look-ups and translations of Y Drych (The Mirror), a Welsh American newspaper published in the United States.
The St David’s Welsh Society of Greater Kansas City began life in 1893 as a benevolent association of Welsh immigrants settling in the metropolitan area. The Society assisted with their adjustment and settling into life in an American Midwestern city. Since that time it has become a place for those with Welsh heritage to honour and celebrate their roots in a land filled with history, wonder, faith, and beauty. Now The St. David’s Welsh Society brings together the various people of the Welsh “village”, of the greater Kansas City area and its environs, and their Cornish neighbours, to celebrate the Celtic heritage and spirit.
The St David’s Society of Pittsburgh has had members since 1882, in the 19th century, more Welsh immigrants settled in western Pennsylvania than anywhere else in the country. Two things attracted them mining jobs and the area’s scenic beauty, which reminded them of Wales, many Welsh people found a sense of belonging by joining the society. Thanks to them, our Society has been active in celebrating our heritage and sharing our cultural heritage for nearly 130 years. Today, the St. David’s Society of Pittsburgh is a membership-based organization that celebrates, preserves, and promotes Welsh culture in South western Pennsylvania. We host or participate in several events throughout the year.
The Iowa Welsh Society began in 1985 in conjunction with the location of the annual Welsh language course sponsored by Cymdeithas Madog at Central College in Pella that summer. It has continued as a happy communication among people who are of Welsh heritage or who have an interest in things Welsh. There are approximately 110 members of the Iowa Welsh Society. We meet two or three times each year in various locations in the state. Previous meetings have been in Ames, Lucas, Des Moines, Cotter, Williamsburg, Ottumwa, Pella and Wales, Iowa. Newsletters are produced prior to each meeting.
The Welsh Society of Philadelphia continued to meet and to assist needy Welsh immigrant throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. More recently, the Welsh Society has led the way among Welsh-American organizations in cultural, philanthropic, and educational programs. The prestigious Robert Morris Award is presented annually to a distinguished Welsh-American at the Society’s St. David’s Day banquet. Recipients in recent years have included G. Mennen Williams, John L. Lewis, Benjamin Fairles and former Secretary of Transportation Drew Lewis. Each year the Society awards one or more scholarships to students of Welsh descent entering institutions of higher learning at the Undergraduate level. The Society also supports other Welsh related activities.
The St David’s Society of Minnesota was formed to preserve the heritage and culture of the Welsh immigrants to Minnesota. To these ends, St. David’s Society members celebrate and cultivate all things Welsh – in literature, history, music, dance, art or ideas, traditional and contemporary. Our current board members welcome your inquiries about the organisation – our history and our activities.
St David’s Welsh Society of the Capital District are your regional Welsh Society covering North Eastern New York. We began life as a Welsh Chorale in 1928 in Schenectady and incorporated as the St. David’s Society of Schenectady in 1929. In 1942, there were enough members to open an Albany branch. Early in the 21st century we rebranded ourselves as the St. David’s Welsh Society of the Capital District. We offer programs of Welsh cultural interest in our region including an annual Cymanfa Ganu and Te Bach (traditional Welsh hymn sing and afternoon tea), Pub Night to celebrate Owain Glyndŵr (national hero and leader of the Welsh Revolution of 1401), Welsh language classes and a St. David’s Day Dinner. We’ve also done workshops and movie nights, and our members have travelled together to attend and support other regional and national Welsh events.
The Cambrian Heritage Society of Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., was organized in 1984 to foster and encourage interest in Welsh hymnology and the culture, customs, and traditions of the Welsh people. Any person of Welsh lineage or any other person interested in the Society’s purpose is eligible for membership. Members receive the Society’s newsletter Newyddion Cumreig – by mail or by email – to inform them of upcoming meetings and other news of interest. We hold a Celebration of St. David in March each year that includes a lavish te bach with each members contributing a favourite treat, a Welsh trivia contest with prizes, and a program of singing. Other meetings offer presentations about Wales including language, history, education, poetry, travel, and rugby. For example, an especially popular meeting featured a Welsh cake recipe competition.
The Paris Welsh Society, founded in 1890, aims through its various activities to bring together Welsh people working, visiting or resident in the Paris area, to enjoy and share their cultural heritage with others. Our major event is the annual Noson Gwyl DdewiSant – St David’s Day celebration with entertainment by Welsh artists. The historical Owain Glyndwr link with France is also marked in late September with another special event. Some of the additional activities include a welsh speaking group plus meeting regularly in pubs around Paris to watch Welsh Rugby and Football matches.
Global Welsh connecting Wales to the world. There are 3 million people living in Wales, and another 3 million Welsh living globally either members or running Welsh societies. We enabling them to connect with each other, with home, and find global opportunities. We give our community relevant news and events across our social media channels and newsletters. We work with people passionate about Wales. We want to promote Wales on a global scale, and will succeed by working together with people and organisations passionate about Wales. We celebrate Welsh people doing great things – Making Wales proud and inspiring success from the many Welsh societies and connections.
Wales International originated in 1948 as an organisation to unify Welsh people dispersed throughout the world and to give them a platform for communication. To Create close connections between Wales today and individuals and Welsh Societies everywhere – including Welsh people “living away”, people of Welsh descent, Welsh learners and friends of our land, language and culture. To support Welsh societies everywhere and encourage new developments wherever possible. To promote prominence for Wales and its culture world-wide.
The Welsh Society of Wellington, New Zealand, was founded in 1907. It was set up by a Welshman who was active on the Wellington Harbour waterfront, who welcomed his compatriots to New Zealand. The Society became an Incorporated Society under the Incorporated Societies Act 1908.The Society exists to extend friendship and support to people with a Welsh connection, to promote Welsh culture, and to foster the performing arts, particularly by supporting visiting Welsh artists.We meet occasionally at various venues for social occasions, and take part in community events ranging from the European carols by candlelight to participating in street parades, such as the Wellington Rugby 7s parade of nations.
New York Welsh Network and community was conceived by the shared experiences of our founding members who over the years and under different circumstances experienced the challenges of moving to a new city and country. The realisation that there was a significant lack of an existing co-ordinated social and professional network lead to the initiation of the New York Welsh. Our Members consist of professionals and industry leaders from a wide range of backgrounds and sectors including Business, Arts, Finance, Media & Entertainment, Government, Banking and the Third Sector. Join for free today by clicking on the link on our homepage and get connected with your fellow Welsh and Welsh-American professionals in New York.
The Ontario Welsh Festival originally the Ontario Gymanfa Ganu Association, was founded in 1949 with our first Gymanfa held in Niagara Falls. Since then we have celebrated our Welsh heritage as a weekend festival, held in hotels in various cities each year across southern Ontario. Friday night is a Noson Lawen, a talent night, full of songs, acts and jokes. Each year we fly over a choir from Wales to perform a grand concert on the Saturday night following our big banquet.
The Chinese in Wales Association (CIWA) is a charitable organisation which aims to deliver services that will make a positive difference to the lives of ethnic Chinese residents in Wales. CIWA was set up to meet the changing demographic needs of the Chinese community in Wales. We are building on the support given by Swansea Chinese Community Co-op Centre over the past 20 years and CIWA, with their support, are developing better services to meet the changing needs of the Chinese community in Swansea and the surrounding areas. We aim to bring our services and community building to other parts of Wales. CIWA has its headquarter based in Swansea. We are currently operating a drop-in community centre based on The Kingsway in Swansea City Centre, which provides core services such as language services in Mandarin, Cantonese, Hakka-Chinese, and English, advocacy, and case referral. Basic on our capability, we advise on local welfare, housing, healthcare, education and employment. We also organise social and educational activities and participate in the promotion of a diverse, multi-cultural society.
The Minnesota Welsh Association (MWA) was formed in the 1920s. Its major purpose was to plan and arrange for an annual Minnesota Welsh Festival each September. The organisation was officially incorporated in 1997 and in 2007 was approved by the United States Internal Revenue Service as a 501(c)(3) non-profit tax-exempt organisation. The MWA is governed by a Board of Directors which meets three times a year to work out details for the annual Minnesota Welsh Festival. The membership fee is $10 per person or $12 per couple. An individual life membership is $100. MWA members receive a quarterly newsletter which provides information not only about the upcoming Minnesota Welsh Festival but also news of other Welsh events in Minnesota and national Welsh communities.
Celtic Canada was founded in January 2016 by its founder, President & CEO, Eleanor (Ellie) Reynolds who had the vision of creating a one stop multimedia resource to service, engage & communicate with the dynamic Celtic Community to which she belongs. The latest news covering all things Celtic, keeping traditions alive in Canada. Featuring news from distinguished and diverse Celtic Canadians offering you a powerful vehicle to click and connect with the Celts, from arts, culture, fashion, lifestyle, travel, politics, and the sports. Local News, events and so much more shared within our community. We connect expatriates with what is happening and all things related covering arts, culture, fashion, lifestyle, travel, politics, and the sports.
The Gulf Coast Welsh Society (Sarasota Welsh) is a not for profit corporation dedicated to the preservation of Welsh heritage and culture. The Society is open to anyone with an interest in Wales and all things Welsh. Please check our website if you think you may want to join.
Chelmsford & District Welsh Society is open to anyone with Welsh origins or connections, or to anyone with an appreciation of Welsh heritage and traditions. All meetings are conducted in English with an opportunity to converse with other Welsh speakers during the evening. The topics and/or speakers at our meetings usually have a Welsh connection although there are also some of local interest. We also hold a Noson Lawen in January, a St David’s Day Dinner and a Church Service on or around March 1st. We regularly hold a Cymanfa Ganu, and organise an annual concert featuring a Welsh Male Choir in May/June held at Chelmsford Cathedral. There is also an opportunity to join us in a short break visit to Wales. Throughout the year there are also fund raising events such as coffee mornings, musical evenings and a Garden Party at the end of June.
The Auckland Welsh Club are based in New Zealand and are both a Football club, the Red Dragons and Rugby club being Auckland Welsh Rugby. The Red Dragons was founded in 2008 and entering the Auckland Sunday Football Association (ASFA) competition the following season. The team was formed thanks to the hard work of the late Barrie Partridge, Gren Jones and Barrie-John Partridge. Initially being a way for the younger members of the club to get physical activity and constant social interaction throughout the Winter season. The Auckland Welsh Rugby team compete in the annual Four Nations tournament at College Rifles. Although they were perennial underdogs in the initial years of the tournament in the past few years they have gone from strength to strength with several close calls culminating in their maiden championship in 2012.
Rhode Island Welsh Society,based in Rhode Island, USA we hope that you join us in celebrating our Welsh culture and heritage. Please check our website to find out more information about us and what we do.
Welsh Dragon Bar in Wellington, New Zealand providing Welsh hospitality to our fantastic customers since 2004, we love welcoming friends new and old to this special place. We pride ourselves on being a proper local pub just like you’d find back in our beautiful homeland Wales – with, of course, a lot of laid back Kiwi attitude thrown in for good measure. In 2018 the bar was sold to new Welsh owners who are committed to giving you a warm Welsh welcome every time you visit.